The project uses a cross-sectional and comparative research design and will generate evidence that is associative/correlational [quasi-experimental] and causal [quasi-experimental]. Original data are being collected using survey research [self-completion questionnaire] on undergraduates who are mentored in life science research by graduate or postdoctoral researchers. Mentoring by graduate / postdoctoral researchers will be evaluated by comparing the strength and function of mentoring relationships within the undergraduate-graduate/postdoctoral-faculty mentoring triad. Instruments include measures of mentoring relationship strength, function, and quality and measures of undergraduate research outcomes, including cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. Data will be analyzed using moderated regression and relative weights analysis.