This project has a longitudinal, cross-sectional, and comparative research design and will generate evidence that is descriptive [standardized and experimenter-generated assessments of children's knowledge], associative/correlational [quasi-experimental, correlations between number knowledge and language knowledge, comparisons between low- and middle-income groups] and causal [experimental]. Original data are being collected from three- and four-year old children from low-income, Spanish-speaking families using assessments of learning.
The project is evaluating a four-week-long, number-concept learning intervention, with a control condition providing non-numerical input; there are also comparison groups of higher-income children. Instruments or measures include PPVT and TVIP for language development, plus a battery of experimenter-designed number-development measures (intransitive & transitive counting tasks, Give-N task, verbal magnitude comparison, written numeral identification, scaffolded number-line task, Siegler's number-line estimation task, and nonsymbolic approximate-number estimation task). The analysis plan for this project involves primarily regression and growth modeling.