Cyberlearning through Game-based, Metaphor Enhanced Learning Objects (CyGaMEs)

Principal Investigator: 
Project Overview
Background & Purpose: 

Game-based, Metaphor Enhanced (GaME) design is a method for applying cognitive science metaphor theory toward the design of computer-mediated learning environments. The process uses structure mapping theory to design videogame worlds aligned with science concepts. The primary objective of the Cyber-enabled Teaching and Learning through Game-based, Metaphor Enhanced Learning Objects (CyGaMEs) project is to empirically test this application of cognitive science theory and the assessment tools we have developed to measure learning and experience in game-based, computer-mediated learning environments.

Setting: 

Participation is not restricted to any specific region.

Research Design: 

The research design is cross-sectional. It was developed to generate evidence that is descriptive (case study, design research, and observation) and causal (experimental methods combined with knowledge discovery techniques such as self-organizing maps and hierarchical cluster analysis). The intervention and comparison groups are assigned to different game conditions.

This project collects original data. Measures include embedded assessments: flowometer (self-report of skill and challenge), gameplay gestures, Timed Report (measure of player progress toward game goal/analog of targeted learning goal), and external assessments: mutual alignment task assessment and procedural task assessment.

Analysis includes mixed ANOVA with repeated measures, hierarchical linear modeling, and coding of participant protocols.

Findings: 

A metaphor enhanced online game, Selene: A Lunar Construction GaME, was used to test applied structure mapping theory. After creating a moon as part of the game, undergraduates wrote significantly more targeted concepts related to lunar geology than before playing, supporting this approach to instructional game design.

Cyberlearning requires assessment instruments embedded within game-based environments. This research program found: 

  • The flowometer, an innovative, theory-based assessment tool founded on flow theory and the experience sampling method, is a sensitive, accurate tool.
  • The CyGaMEs Timed Report, a performance-based measure of goal-seeking behavior, is a sensitive measure of mental model construction. Analyses determine player progress, rate of progress, and changes in that rate of progress (e.g., a learning moment).
  • Learning objectives may be realized within game environments as static or dynamic game goals. Type of game goal determines the characteristics of growth curves (player learning trajectories).

Replication with extension supports a case for reliability and validity of CyGaMEs assessment tools as measures of learning, affect, and the interaction between the two. CyGaMEs measures can be applied toward formative or summative assessment or evaluation. 

CyGaMEs uses a type of knowledge engineering to translate hard science into videogames: to translate what scientists think into a game that learners play to discover and apply fundamental science concepts. The process enables researchers to measure learning as it occurs. This permits CyGaMEs to draw each player's learning as a visual representation that researchers, educators, and even 9-year-old players can understand.

Results support the premises underlying the CyGaMes approach to instructional game design and embedded assessment:

  • The CyGaMEs approach guides and constrains design and development of instructional games that modify behavior to cause and measure learning.
  • Gameplay and game goals motivate, guide, and reward discovery and application of targeted conceptual knowledge. 

CyGaMEs environments are designed to make learning more intuitive.

Publications & Presentations: 

Álvarez, C., Fernández, J., Reese, D. D., & Negrín, A. (2014). Selene: Un videojuego astronómico educativo. AstronomíA, 175, 38-43.

Bendito, P., & Reese, D. D. (2004). Meaning in motion: Conceptual metaphor as a motion graphic design communications tool. In R. E. Griffin, J. Lee, & S. Chandler (Eds.), Changing Tides: Selected Readings of the International Visual Literacy Association (pp. 63-68). Newport, RI: International Visual Literacy Association.

Carter, B., Wilbanks, L., & Reese, D. D. (2009). Enhancing science education through instructional games that prepare students for knowledge acquisition. In I. W. Gibson, R. Weber, K. McFerrin, R. Carlsen, & D. A. Willis (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2009 (pp. 1410-1417). AACE: Chesapeake, VA.

Casto, P. M., & Reese, D. D. (2010, February). Afterschool Universe and Telescopes. Workshop presented at the NASA IV&V Educator Resource Center (ERC), Fairmont State, Fairmont, WV.

Conaway, S., Phillips, M., Carter, B., Hitt, B., & Reese, D. D. (2008, March 14). Selene: Learning the past with today's technologies. Talk presented at the Fifth Annual Mid-Atlantic Undergraduate Research Conference, West Virginia Wesleyan College, Buckhannon.

Diehl, V. A., & Reese, D. D. (2009, October 23). Preparing students to learn intractable science concepts with game-based metaphor enhanced instructional design. Talk presented at the 4th Annual Faculty Research Symposium, Western Illinois University, Macomb.

Diehl, V. A., & Reese, D. D. (2010). Elaborated metaphors support viable inferences about difficult science concepts. Educational Psychology, 30(7), 771-791. doi: 10.1080/01443410.2010.504996

Diehl, V. A., Reese, D. D., Crull, M. J., & Joos, L. (2007, May). Elaborated metaphors for enhancing chemistry learning. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, Washington, DC.

Diehl, V. A., Vaught, A. L., Bleuer, J., & Reese, D. D. (2008, May). Elaboration leads to more effective metaphor use in chemistry learning. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Psychological Science, Chicago.

Hitt, B. A., & Reese, D. D. (2012, April). Knowledge discovery from Selene data. In E. Wiebe (Chair), New measurement paradigms: Psychometric methods for technology-based assessments: Structured poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, BC.

Ifenthaler, D., Eseryel, D., Ge, X., Ke, F., Warren, S., Loh, C. S., . . . Reese, D. D. (2012, November). Assessment in game-based learning (panel). Panel presented at the annual international convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Louisville, KY.

Langhoff, S., Cowan-Sharp, J., Dodson, E., Damer, B., Ketner, B., & Reese, D. D. (2009). Workshop report: Virtual worlds and immersive environments. (NASA/CP–2009-214598). Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. Retrieved from http://event.arc.nasa.gov/main/home/reports/CP-2009-214598_Virt_Worlds.pdf

Loh, C. S., Reese, D. D., & Warren, S. (2008). Instructional design, evaluation, and assessment standards in serious games. Talk presented at the 2008 International Conference of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Orlando, FL.

Reese, D. D. (2003). Metaphor and content: An embodied paradigm for learning. Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. Retrieved from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-03312003-115151/unrestric...

Reese, D. D. (2003). Trees of knowledge: Changing mental models through metaphorical episodes and concept maps. In R. E. Griffin, V. S. Williams, & J. Lee (Eds.), Turning trees: Selected readings (pp. 205-214): International Visual Literacy Association.

Reese, D. D. (2005, October). The analogical designs model. Paper presented at the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Orlando, FL.

Reese, D. D. (2005, July). Developing sound metaphors for science education. Poster presented at the Gordon Research Conference: Visualization in Science Education, Oxford, England.

Reese, D. D. (2005, October). Engineering instructional metaphors: A task of graphic isomorphism. Paper presented at the International Visual Literacy Association, Orlando, FL.

Reese, D. D. (2006). Foundations of serious games design and assessment. (COTF/LVP/Sep-2006). Wheeling, WV: Center for Educational Technologies, Wheeling Jesuit University.

Reese, D. D. (2007, March). Designing Selene: Theory-based game design and data-mining. Presentation at the Serious Games Summit. Retrieved from https://store.cmpgame.com/product.php?cat=19&id=2022

Reese, D. D. (2007, April). Designing the metaphor-enhanced virtual world: Games as Preparation for future learning. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.

Reese, D. D. (2007). First steps and beyond: Serious games as preparation for future learning. Journal of Educational Media and Hypermedia, 16(3), 283-300.

Reese, D. D. (2007, June 13). Games as preparation for future learning, NASA Langley Explorer Schools Technology Immersion Workshop.

Reese, D. D. (2007, April). Increasing Flow during middle school science with the e-Mission live simulation and the DiSC argumentation tool. Roundtable presented at the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.

Reese, D. D. (2007, April). Selene. Workshop session conducted at the Game-based Learning Workshop: Technology-Based Tools for Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century, Suffolk, VA.

Reese, D. D. (2007, October). Selenology exploration–ludic environments–networked education (SELENE). Showcase presenter at the 2007 International Conference of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Design and Development Showcase, Anaheim, CA. [showcase selection through review panel of judges]

Reese, D. D. (2008, July 10). CyGaMEs for learning and assessing conceptual knowledge: The how-to primer. Worked example presented at Games+Learning+Society 4.0, Madison, WI.

Reese, D. D. (2008). Engineering instructional metaphors within virtual environments to enhance visualization. In J. K. Gilbert, M. Nakhleh, & M. Reiner (Eds.), Visualization: Theory and practice in science education (pp. 133-153). New York: Springer.

Reese, D. D. (2008, November 6-9). Flowometer: Embedded measurement of learners’ flow perceptions within game-based instructional environments. Paper presented at the 2008 International Conference of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Orlando, FL.

Reese, D. D. (2008). GaME design for intuitive concept knowledge. In R. E. Ferdig (Ed.), Handbook of research on effective electronic gaming in education (Vol. 3, pp. 1104-1126). Hershey, PA: Idea Group.

Reese, D. D. (2008). [__________]: The greatest shows on Earth. Featured keynote (distinguished visitor) presented at the 1st International Meeting on Evaluation for Mid-Higher Level Education and College Level Education, Veracruz, MX.

Reese, D. D. (2009, August). CyGaMEs: Effective game design for successful learning and assessment. Paper presented at the Interactive Technologies 2009 Washington SALT® Conference, Arlington, VA.

Reese, D. D. (November, 2009). Selene: A Lunar Construction GaME. Invited exhibitor at the National Science Foundation's Senate Education Technology Showcase, Washington, DC. Reese, D. D. (2009, October). Replication supports flowometer: Advancing cyberlearning through game-based assessment technologies. Paper presented at the 2009 International Conference of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Louisville, KY.

Reese, D. D. (2009, June). Selene. Workshop presented at the NASA Aerospace Education Services Project Annual Sandbox Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

Reese, D. D. (2009, February 10). Selene: A Lunar Construction GaME (Invited Talk). Talk presented at the IBM Serious Games Day, Raleigh, NC.

Reese, D. D. (2009). Structure mapping theory as a formalism for instructional game design and assessment. In B. Kokinov, K. Holyoak, & D. Gentner (Eds.), New frontiers in analogy research: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Analogy (Analogy '09) (pp. 394-403). Sofia, Bulgaria: New Bulgarian University Press. Available at http://www.nbu.bg/cogs/analogy09/proceedings/42-T2.pdf

Reese, D. D. (2010). CyGaMEs Timed Report: Embedded tool for evaluation and assessment. Poster presented at the National Science Foundation REESE Program Principal Investigator’s Meeting, from http://selene.cet.edu/pdfs/NSF 2010.pdf

Reese, D. D. (2010, July). CyGaMEs: A full-service instructional design model harnessing game-based technologies for learning and assessment. Paper presented at the Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2010 Summer Research Symposium, Bloomington, IA.

Reese, D. D. (2010). Introducing Flowometer: A CyGaMEs assessment suite tool. In R. V. Eck (Ed.), Gaming & cognition: Theories and perspectives from the learning sciences (pp. 227-254). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Reese, D. D. (2010). Learning new things through gaming & virtual worlds. Workshop (webinar) presented at the NASA Aerospace Education Services Project Annual Meeting, Penn State University, State College, PA.

Reese, D. D. (2010, June). Learning new things through gaming: One company's journey toward CyGaMEs expertise. Worked example presented at the Games, Learning, and Society 2010, Madison, WI.

Reese, D. D. (2011). Cyberlearning through game-based, metaphor enhanced learning objects (CyGaMEs). In G. Fulmer (Chair), Innovative approaches to assessment in STEM education. Talk presented at the 2011 REESE Principal Investigators Meeting, Arlington, VA.

Reese, D. D. (2011, February). Learning new things through gaming & virtual worlds, NASA Educator Resource Center annual meeting, Webinar.

Reese, D. D. (2011, December). MoonGazers: CyGaMEs Selene, MoonWorld, and MoonGazers II. Retrieved from https://challengercenter.webex.com/challengercenter/ldr.php?AT=pb&SP=MC&...

Reese, D. D. (2011, November). MoonGazers: CyGaMEs Selene, MoonWorld, and MoonGazers I. Professional development webinar retrieved from https://challengercenter.webex.com/challengercenter/ldr.php?AT=pb&SP=MC&...

Reese, D. D. (2011, October). CyGaMEs Selene, and MoonWorld. Professional development presented at the Internet 2 K-20 Member Meeting, webinar.

Reese, D. D. (2011, October). MoonGazers, CyGaMEs Selene, and MoonWorld I. Professional development webinar retrieved from http://media.doe.in.gov/WebEx/ois/2011-09-27-IgniteImpWkshpIntroSeleneMo...

Reese, D. D. (2011, September). MoonGazers, CyGaMEs Selene, and MoonWorld II. Professional development webinar retrieved from http://media.doe.in.gov/WebEx/ois/2011-09-27-IgniteImpWkshpIntroSeleneMo...

Reese, D. D. (2012, August). Bringing videogaming to our classrooms: Selene, MoonGazers hands-on activities, and big data. Workshop presented at the annual conference of the Challenger Center for Space Science Education, Chattanooga, TN.

Reese, D. D. (2012). CyGaMEs: A full-service instructional design model harnessing game-based technologies for learning and assessment. In L. Moller, & J. B. Huett (Eds.), The next generation of distance education: Unconstrained learning (pp. 157-170). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-1785-9_10 Available at http://www.springerlink.com/content/p821714747087845/

Reese, D. D. (2012). An instructional design approach to effective instructional game design and assessment. In M. Orey, S. A. Jones, & R. M. Branch (Eds.), 2011 Educational media and technology yearbook (Vol. 36, pp. 127-138). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-1305-9_11 Available: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-1305-9_11

Reese, D. D. (2012, November). Mapping pragmatics and structure: CyGaMEs approach to instructional games with embedded assessment. Invited talk presented at the UCLA Center for Advanced Technology in Schools (CATS) Seminar, Los Angeles, CA.

Reese, D. D. (2012, September). Selene, MoonGazers Hands-On Activities, and Big Data. Workshop webinar presented at Stars at Yerkes Teacher Professional Development, Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI.

Reese, D. D. (2012). Selene: A Lunar Construction GaME: A CyGaMEs learning environment. In M. Timms (Ed.), New measurement paradigms (pp. 13-14). Boston, MA: Retrieved from CADRE (Community for Advancing Discovery Research in Education) Education Development Center website http://cadrek12.org/sites/default/files/NMP%20Report%20041412_0.pdf

Reese, D. D. (2012, April). Knowledge specification: A priori requirement for effective embedded assessment. In E. Wiebe (Chair), New measurement paradigms: Psychometric methods for technology-based assessments: Structured poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver, BC.

Reese, D. D. (2013, February). Cyberlearning technologies for STEM achievement - In Spanish! Turn your students into MoonGazers. Featured presenter at the 42 annual conference of the National Association for Bilingual, Education, Orlando, FL.

Reese, D. D. (2013, February). Cyberlearning technologies for STEM achievement - In Spanish! Turn your students into MoonGazers. Concurrent session presented at the 42 Annual Conference of the National Association for Bilingual Education Orlando, FL.

Reese, D. D. (2013, March). CyGaMEs for Technology Supported Assessment. Guest lecturer for doctoral course Ed 645: Technology Supported Assessment, Wilkes University, Wilkes-Barre, PA.

Reese, D. D. (2013, March). CyGaMEs: Instructional video game design and embedded assessment. Guest lecturer for doctoral course 545: Instructional Simulations and Games, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND.

Reese, D. D. (2013). Inventing the future: Achievement and personalization through instructional videogames. Highlighted Presentation: Inventors in our Midst Series. Silver Spring Mini Makers Faire, Silver Spring, MD. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i9r3p8o8xwU&feature=youtu.be

Reese, D. D. (2014). Digital knowledge maps: The foundation for learning analytics through instructional games. In D. Ifenthaler, & R. Hanewald (Eds.), Digital knowledge maps in education: Technology-enhanced support for teachers and learners (pp. 299-327). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3178-7_16 Available: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-3178-7_16#

Reese, D. D. (in press). Embodied learning systems. In J. M. Spector, T. Johnson, D. Ifenthaler, W. Savenye, & M. Wang (Eds.), SAGE encyclopedia of educational technology. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Reese, D. D., & Bendito, P. (2003). Enhancing e-solution animations through conceptual metaphor. Journal of Visual Literacy, 23(2), 163-176.

Reese, D. D., & Coffield, J. (2005). Just-in-time conceptual scaffolding: Engineering sound instructional metaphors. International Journal of Technology, Knowledge, and Society, 1(4), 183-198.

Reese, D. D., Diehl, V. A., & Lurquin, J. L. (2009, May). Metaphor enhanced instructional video game causes conceptual gains in lunar science knowledge. Poster presented at the Association for Psychological Science annual meeting, San Francisco, CA.

Reese, D. D., & Gobert, J. (2012). Knowledge specification: A priori requirement for effective embedded assessment. In M. Timms, D. H. Clements, J. Gobert, D. J. Ketelhut, J. C. Lester, D. D. Reese, & E. Wiebe (Eds.), New measurement paradigms (pp. 18-32). Boston, MA: Retrieved from CADRE (Community for Advancing Discovery Research in Education) Education Development Center website http://cadrek12.org/sites/default/files/NMP Report 041412_0.pdf

Reese, D. D., & Harrison, A. (2009, October). Selene and MoonWorld. Exhibitor at the Third Annual MODSIM World Conference and Expo, Virginia Beach, VA.

Reese, D. D., & Hitt, B. A. (2009, June). Selene knowledge discovery: The interface effect. Poster presented at Games+Learning+Society 5.0, Madison, WI.

Reese, D. D., Kosko, Robert E., Wood, Charles A., Lightfritz, C., Tabachnick, B., Magers, R., Moore, D., Petrole, Matthew, & Nowak, S. (2012). CyGaMEs Selene II: A Lunar Construction GaME. NSF Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge, winner – tie honorable mention, highest recognition awarded in game and apps.

Reese, D. D., & Moore, D. (2013, February). Expo: CyGaMEs Selene. Exhibitor the 42 Annual Conference of the National Association for Bilingual, Education, Orlando, FL.

Reese, D. D., Seward, R. J., Harrison, A., McFarland, L., Hitt, B., & Tabachnick, B. G. (2011, April). Game-based embedded assessment measures learning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Reese, D. D., Seward, R. J., Tabachnick, B. G., Hitt, B., Harrison, A., & McFarland, L. (2012). Timed Report measures learning: Game-based embedded assessment. In D. Ifenthaler, D. Eseryel, & X. Ge (Eds.), Assessment in game-based learning: Foundations, innovations, and perspectives (pp. 145-172). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3546-4_9

Reese, D. D., Shiplett, T., & Wood, C. A. (2011). STEM Education Camp: MoonGazers, Selene, and MoonWorld. Workshop. Wheeling Jesuit University. Wheeling, WV.

Reese, D. D., & Tabachnick, B. G. (2010). The moment of learning: Quantitative analysis of exemplar gameplay supports CyGaMEs approach to embedded assessment. In J. Earle (Ed.), Building a knowledge base to inform educational practice in STEM: Examples from the REESE portfolio (pp. 12-25). Symposium conducted at the meeting of the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness 2010 Annual Research Conference, Washington, DC. Structured abstract retrieved from http://www.sree.org/conferences/2010/program/abstracts/191.pdf.

Reese, D. D., Tabachnick, B. G., & Kosko, R. E. (2014). Video game learning dynamics: Actionable measures of multidimensional learning trajectories. British Journal of Educational Technology. Advance online publication http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjet.12128/pdf doi:10.1111/bjet.12128

Reese, D. D., & Wood, C. A. (2010, March). Learning lunar science through the Selene videogame. Poster presented at the Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference, Woodlands, TX. Abstracts: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LPI....41.2260R

Reese, D. D., & Wood, C. A. (2011, July 25). Selene, MoonWorld, and MoonGazers. Talk (webinar) presented at ModSim, Hampton, VA.

Reese, D. D., Wood, C. A., Bogost, I., Harrison, A., McFarland, L., Gilbert, M., . . . Oliverio, J. (2007). Selene. NSF Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge, semi-finalist honors.

Reese, D. D., Wood, C. A., Carter, B., & McFarland, L. (2009, February 11). Selene: Research, design, evaluation. Invited talk presented at the Seminar, Pausch Studio, Entertainment Technology Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA.

Reese, D. D., Wood, C. A., Hitt, B., & Carter, B. (2010, June 6). CyGaMEs Timed Report: Embedded tool for evaluation and assessment. Poster presented at the REESE principal investigator's meeting. Retrieved from http://selene.cet.edu/pdfs/NSF 2010_smFinal.pdf

Reese, D. D., Wood, C. A., Hitt, B., Harrison, A., McFarland, L., Seward, R. J., . . . Hernandez-Gantes, V. (2011, July 12). CyGaMEs Selene: A Lunar Construction GaME. Poster session presented at the Gordon Research Conference on Visualization in Science Education, Smithfield, RI.

Reese, D. D., Yelenic, J., & Neuenschwander, J. (2010, October). To the Moon through virtual worlds and game-based learning. Talk presented at the West Virginia Science Teachers Association, Wheeling, WV.

Timms, M., Clements, D. H., Gobert, J., Ketelhut, D. J., Lester, J. C., Reese, D. D., & Wiebe, E. (2012). New measurement paradigms. Boston: Retrieved April 18, 2012, from CADRE (Community for Advancing Discovery Research in Education), Education Development Center website: http://cadrek12.org/sites/default/files/NMP Report.pdf (includes Reese & Gobert section cited above).

Wood, C. A., & Reese, D. D. (2007). Selene: A videogame for learning about the Moon. EPO and a changing world: Creating linkages and expanding partnerships: The 119th annual ASP meeting, CS 389, 109-110. Retrieved from http://www.aspbooks.org/a/volumes/article_details/?paper_id=28343

Wood, C. A., & Reese, D. D. (2008). Selene: A Videogame for Learning about the Moon. In C. Garmany, M. G. Gibbs, & J. W. Moody (Eds.), EPO and a Changing World: Creating Linkages and Expanding Partnerships (Vol. 389, pp. 109-110). http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ASPC..389..109W

Other Products: 
  • Embedded and external tools for assessing learning and perceived experience within game-based virtual environments.
  • MoonGazers curricular unit activities.

Young people and adults play Selene to discover and apply core ideas and cross-cutting concepts targeted by the Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards. Prepared with new knowledge that makes Moon viewing meaningful, learners complete hands-on activities for observing Earth’s Moon within the context of the Earth, Moon, sun system.

Selene II (see http://selene.cet.edu/?page=news&id=69)
MoonGazers (see http://selene.cet.edu/?page=moongazers

Moonworld

Moonworld allows players to apply the basic planetary and geology concepts they learned in Selene by working in teams of four conducting virtual field work on the surface of a moon. Throughout a carefully sequenced program, a series of hands-on activities and exercises that complement Selene and Moonworld provide participants the ability to observe the Earth's Moon within the context of the Earth, Moon, Sun system with the knowledge of what makes Moon viewing meaningful. The list below are MoonWorld's Professional development activities:

  • Introduction to telescopes of assorted sizes and binoculars
  • Lunar photography and feature identification inquiry
  • Moon Relative Position Exercise
  • Moon Rheita Valley
  • Phases of the Moon Exercise
  • MoonGazer's Wheel
  • Relative Sizes
  • Relative Distances
  • Integrating Games into Events of Instruction
  • Game Genres
  • Moon Rheita Valley
  • Phases of the Moon Exercise

Badges

CyGaMEs, in partnership with Badges for NASA Activities, has a Selene Lunar Geologist: Earth and Space Science badge series! This series contributes toward a suite of badges earned and awarded through Mozilla and the MacArthur Foundation for competence in NASA activities. Selene is one of the Earth and space science topics. Players may also sign up for a Mozilla Open Badge Backpack. Badges provide a process outside of formal education through which people earn and certify competence.

All Selene players who have completed the game have also earned at least a Three Star Selene Lunar Geologist: Earth and Space Science badge for successfully discovering and applying the concepts of heat, mass, and radiation. There is also the prestigious Seven Star level badge that certifies that players have discovered and successfully applied the CyGaMEs Selene lunar geology concepts of heat, mass, radiation, density, impact cratering, volcanism, and lava placement. All players can replay Selene to increase their learning and performance to the Seven Star level. Just as the Selene game is available is Spanish, so is badging and the badging process so that Spanish-speaking players who are learners of English may also take part in this unique opportunity.

For more information on badges, helpful links, and how to retrieve a badge, visit selene.cet.edu/?page=badges. For Spanish, visit selene.cet.edu/?page=insignias.

Spanish Selene

One in six Americans are of Hispanic origin, and Hispanics are the fastest growing sector of the U.S. population. Predictions expect current ethnic minorities will constitute the majority of U.S. population in the not too distant future. Therefore, Selene and NABE have formed a partnership to create the new Spanish language version of the award-winning game Selene in order to reach out to bilingual students. Now, many students considered to be English language learners can learn in their dominant language how the Earth's Moon was formed and the basic geological processes on Earth and the solar system. The NABE-CyGaMEs partnership seeks to form a special interest group to leverage primary language linguistics and Selene to increase STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) achievement toward the New Science Education Standards in middle school Earth and Space Science.

The Inquiry Cycle

Learning through gameplay inquiry is a bit challenging for some students. To help them, and to help educators help them, we have developed the CyGaMEs Gameplay Inquiry Cycle.

Standardized metrics

CyGaMEs Timed Report provides quantified metrics for formative evaluation and assessment and summative evaluation and assessment. These metrics advance teaching and learning as standardized metrics of learning, rate of learning, and changes in that rate (e.g., learning moments). They provide actionable measurement of (a) Learners: For comparing individual and aggregate group performance and trajectories; and (b) Learning game systems: For comparing across iteratively designed game versions and among instructional games.

Data management system

To make CyGaMEs data publicly available, the team developed the Wheeling Jesuit University's Data Management System http://www.wju.edu/dms. This repository integrates into that institution's Research and Grant preparation process serving all research projects within the university. Design specifications may be implemented at other institutions.