Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)

Principal Investigator: 
Co-Investigator: 
Project Overview
Background & Purpose: 

TEDS-M is a collaborative effort of worldwide institutions to study the mathematics preparation of future primary and secondary teachers. This study will tell us if what future teachers learn in teacher education leads to more effective knowledge of mathematics and mathematics for teaching. The lead center is the International Study Center at Michigan State University, which along with the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), the Australian Council of Educational Research, and national research centers (NRCs) in 17 countries, is analyzing the costs of becoming a teacher prepared to teach mathematics, the policies governing mathematics teacher education (including recruitment, selection, certification and accreditation); examining curricula in teacher education and their correlation with primary and secondary school curricula; exploring program opportunities to learn, and analyzing intended and achieved outcomes of teacher education programs. The TEDS-M study relies on rigorous methodologies, nationally representative samples and large scale surveys of teacher education institutions, faculty, and future teachers to provide valid and reliable information on the organization, outcomes and costs of preparing future teachers to teach mathematics at the primary and lower secondary levels. TEDS-M builds on other cross-national studies such as IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).

Setting: 

The participating countries include Botswana, Canada, Chile, Georgia, Germany, Malaysia, Norway, Oman, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, and the USA.

Research Design: 

This is a comparative study designed to produce associative and/or correlational [interpretive commentary, quasi-experimental] data. Original data is collected through school records or policy documents; assessments of learning or achievement tests; and survey research [self-completion questionnaires].

In addition to document analysis, TEDS-M conducted (a) national surveys of the teacher preparation (TP) institutions using an institutional program questionnaire; (b) a national survey of educators and mentors of future teachers in the TP institutions using a teacher educator questionnaire; and (c) national surveys of future teachers in the sampled institutions and routes who are preparing to teach mathematics (either as specialists or generalists).

In most countries, TEDS-M implemented a two-stage sampling design. First, a national probability sample was selected from the population of TP institutions that offer education to the target population of future mathematics teachers in the routes of interest. Once an institution was selected, all programs associated with these routes were included in the survey. Then, within these institutions (and programs), samples of educators and of future teachers were surveyed. In many countries, it was necessary to select all TP institutions to reach the IEA standards of data quality. In almost all countries, it was necessary to survey all eligible educators for TEDS-M. Likewise, in many countries, all eligible future teachers in the sampled institutions were surveyed. In TEDS-M, the measure of size (MOS) of the institutions to be used for selecting a sample with probability proportional to size was decided on a case-by-case basis (this is a common practice in other IEA surveys). In countries where the number of institutions is large enough, TEDS-M selected a “real” sample building - if applicable - on at least three different explicit strata: (a) teacher preparation institutions for primary level; (b) teacher preparation institutions for secondary level; and (c) institutions preparing simultaneously for both levels. Where required, all samples, whether they are element or cluster sampling, were drawn using a random mechanism. The software package WinW3S was used in each national center to select the samples of future teachers, classes (if appropriate), and educators. This software also allows reliable documentation of the whole sampling process. Sampling errors are computed using a well-established re-sampling method, e.g., JRR (jackknife repeated replication) or BRR (balanced half-sample repeated replication).

All countries participating in TEDS-M were encouraged to provide complete national coverage of their national desired target populations. However, political, organizational, and/or operational conditions has in some cases made it difficult for some NRCs to obtain complete national coverage. Removing a geographical region or a language group from the target population of TP institutions is possible. However, reduced coverage will mean that the survey results will not be deemed representative of the entire national teacher education system. The TEDS-M international and national reports will reflect this fact.

In addition to survey data, TEDS-M collected data from documents including K-12 and teacher education curriculum and syllabi from mathematics, mathematics pedagogy and pedagogy and practicum courses; policy documents on teacher preparation and development in mathematics; and national statistics, including information on costs.

Survey data. For the analysis of the survey data collected, scales were developed by taking three primary steps. First, items were evaluated for functionality (% of non-response--excluding omitted or non administered items), distribution and/or variability in responses through descriptive analysis (e.g., frequency counts, median, range, etc.) and graphical displays of data (e.g., histograms). When a malfunctioning item was identified, the decision was made for exclusion of the item from the rest of analysis as well as the scale. Second, items were combined into sets based on the intended survey-specification target or intended scale (in some cases, subscale), which are priori designations. Based on this prior intent for the items, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the dimensionality and the model fit of each scale. Based on fit indices and item loadings on a factor, decisions regarding selection of items for final assignment to scales were considered (DeVellis, 2003). Finally, Rasch (1- parameter IRT) model was used to scale items in order to secure meaningful scale scores measuring each construct. The Rasch analysis also provides information about item fit (point-biserial correlation), item difficulty (the ability level with the chance of 50% correct), item contribution (information) to the scale, and other measurement properties of the scale, including reliability. This process is appropriate for both dichotomously and polytomously scored cognitive items and rating scale attitudinal items like belief items. Validity related evidence regarding expected relations among mathematics and belief sub-scales is assessed with inter-scale correlations (Bond, and Fox, 2001).

Curriculum and syllabus coding data. The analysis is of two forms. The first is to identify ways of determining the similarity of the coding pattern for the curriculum and syllabi. These similarity measures can be used in a cluster analysis to identify curriculum and syllabi that have patterns of content inclusion that are similar and different. The second form of analysis is to use the same similarity data to determine if the results can be scaled to identify quantitative dimensions of similarity that can be used in other analyses. The methodology used is non-metric multidimensional scaling because of the purely descriptive nature of the data. If the results of these analyses yield interpretable results, then scales will be produced that describe the nature of the curriculum and syllabus dimensions.

Findings: 

The release of the findings is expected for January 2010. Please see the publications listed below for more information about this project.

Publications & Presentations: 

Tatto, M.T., Lerman, S. and Novotná, J. (2009). Overview of Teacher Education Systems across the World. In Even, R. and Ball, D.L. (Eds.), The Professional Education and Development of Teachers of Mathematics (p. 15-23). New ICMI Study Series. The 15th ICMI Study DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-09601-8 8, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009. http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-0-387-09600-1

Winsløw,C. , C. Bergsten, D. Butlen, M. David, P. Gómez, B. Grevholm, S. Li, P. Moreira, N. Robinson, N. Sayac, J. Schwille, T. Tatto, A. White and T. Wood (2009). First Years of Teaching. In Even, R. and Ball, D.L. (Eds.), The Professional Education and Development of Teachers of Mathematics (p 93-101). New ICMI Study Series. The 15th ICMI Study DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-09601-8 8, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009. http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-0-387-09600-1

Schmidt, W.H., Houang, R.T., Cogan, L., Bloemeke, S., Tatto, M.T., Hsieh, F.J., et al. (2008). Opportunity to learn in the preparation of mathematics teachers: its structure and how it varies across six countries. ZDM; Springer Berlin/Heidelberg. Retrieved Sept. 9, 2008 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/v293l3n614603972/

Book
Tatto, M. T., Schwille, J., Senk, S., Ingvarson, L., Peck, R., & Rowley, G. (2008). Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M): Conceptual framework. East Lansing, MI: Teacher Education and Development International Study Center, College of Education, Michigan State University. http://teds.educ.msu.edu/

Monographs and Technical Reports
Schmidt, W., Tatto, M.T., Bankov, K. Blomeke, S., Cedillo, T., Cogan, L. Han, S.I., Houang, R., Hsieh, F.J., Paine, L., Santillan, M., and Schwille, J. (2007, December). The preparation gap: Teacher Education for Middle School Mathematics in Six Countries. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. http://usteds.msu.edu/related_research.asp

Schmidt, W., Tatto, M.T., Bankov, K., Blomeke, S., Cedillo, T., Cogan, L., Hun, S., Houang, R., Hsieh, F., Paine, L., Santillan, M., Schwille, J. (2007). How does the German sample in comparison to the samples from Bulgaria, Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan and the US? in Blömeke, S., Kaiser, G. & Lehmann, R. (Eds.), Professionelle Kompetenz angehender Lehrerinnen und Lehrer. Wissen, Überzeugungen und Lerngelegenheiten deutscher Mathematik-Studierender und -referendare – Erste Ergebnisse zur Wirksamkeit der Lehrerausbildung. Professional competencies of future teachers. Knowledge, beliefs and opportunities to learn of middle-school mathematics teachers in Germany. First results on the efficacy of teacher education. Münster: Waxmann.

Tatto, M.T., Schwille, J., Senk, S., Ingvarson, L., Peck, R., Rowley, G., Schmidt, W., Carnoy, M., Paine, L., Bankov, K., Rodriguez, M., Houang, R., Cogan, L. (2007, June). A cross-national study of policy, practice and readiness to teach primary and secondary mathematics. Conceptual framework. IEA First teacher education study in mathematics (TEDS-M), Field Trial. East Lansing, MI: College of Education, Michigan State University. http://teds.educ.msu.edu/

Tatto, M.T., Schwille, J., Schmidt, W., Ingvarson, L., Beavis, A., Cogan, L., Ferrini-Mundy, J., Foy, P., Paine, L., Plank, D., Rodriguez, E. (2004, September). Conceptual Framework and Plan for the IEA First Teacher Education Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M). 2nd Edition for review and discussion. East Lansing, MI: College of Education, Michigan State University.

Tatto, M.T. (2004, February). Report on the P-Teacher Education and Development Study (P-TEDS) Mexico City.

Tatto, M.T., Schwille, J., Ingvarson, L. and Beavis, A. (2003). Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS) Progress Report to the IEA General Assembly Lemesos, Cyprus, 6-9 October.

Tatto, M.T. (2003, June). Report on the Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS) Amsterdam Expert Panel Meeting.

Tatto, M.T. (2003, October). Report on the P-Teacher Education and Development Study (P-TEDS) Report of the East Lansing Meeting.

Tatto, M.T. (2003, December). Report on the Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS) Hamburg Expert Panel Meeting.

Schwille, J., Tatto, M.T.,Ingvarson, L. (2002, October). Teachers and teacher education: A cross-national study of elementary and secondary teachers of mathematics and science. Research proposal presented at the Annual IEA General Assembly Meeting held in Marrakech October 7-9, 2002

Conference Presentations and Papers
Tatto, M.T., (2008, October). Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS) Progress Report presented to the IEA General Assembly Berlin, Germany, 6-9 October 2008.

Tatto, M.T., (2008, March). Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS) Progress Report presented to the IEA Technical Expert Group, New York City, NY, March 29.

Tatto, M.T. (2008, March). Framing the Issues: Conceptualizing the Context, Content, and Outcomes of Mathematics Teacher Education, paper presented in Presidential Session Symposium: Developing Subject-Matter Knowledge in Mathematics Middle School Teachers: A Cross-National Study of Teacher Preparation, at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting, New York City, NY, March 24-28.

Tatto, M.T & Rodriguez, M. (2008, March). Moving from Art to Science: Item Writing Course to Assess Teachers' Mathematics & Pedagogical Knowledge, Director, Professional Development Course taught at the American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual Meeting, New York City, NY, March 24-28.

Tatto, M.T. (2008, March). Measurement and Conceptual Challenges in a Cross-National Study of Mathematics Teacher Education, Chair, Interactive Symposium organized and presented at the 52nd Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Annual Conference, New York City, NY, March 17-21, 2008.

Tatto, M.T. (2008, March). Challenges in Measuring the Knowledge of Graduating Teacher Education Students in the Domain of Pedagogy and Teaching Knowledge, Paper presented at the 52nd Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Annual Conference, New York City, NY, March 17-21, 2008.

Tatto, M.T., (2007, December). Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS) Progress Report presented to National Science Foundation during the MT21 Press Release, Washington, DC: NSF, December 10-11, 2007. See NSF Press Release 07-185 U.S. Middle School Math Teachers Are Ill-prepared Among International Counterparts http://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=110845&org=EHR

Tatto, M.T., (2007, October). Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS) Progress Report presented to the IEA General Assembly Hong-Kong, 5-13 October 2007.

Tatto, M.T, (2007, September). Teacher Research in a Global Economy, paper prepared for the UKFIET Researching growth in education and development, methodological considerations and directions. University of Oxford Examination Schools, Oxford, England September 11 – 13.

Tatto, M.T. & Bankov, K. (2007, August). The organization of content and experiences in mathematics teacher education and its relation to mathematics teaching knowledge. International Symposium Elementary Mathematics Teaching Prague, Czech Republic: Charles University in Prague, the Faculty of Education, August 19 – 24.

Tatto, M.T et al. (2007, April). Conceptual Challenges in a Cross-national Study of Mathematics Teacher Education. Interactive Symposium presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association, Chicago, IL (April 9-13). Chair: R. Floden; Discussant: Pam Grossman.

Tatto, M.T et al. (2007, February/March). Developing Subject Matter Knowledge in Mathematics Middle School Teachers: A Cross-National Study of Teacher Preparation. Interactive Symposium organized and presented at the 51st Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Annual Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, February 25-March 1.

Tatto, M.T., and Schwille, J., (2006, October). Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS) Progress Report presented to the IEA General Assembly Amiens, France, 5-13 October 2006.Tatto, M.T. (2005). An IEA Cross-National Study of Elementary and Secondary Mathematics School Teachers. Poster presented at the NSF Principal Investigators Meeting, Crystal City Washington, DC., December 7-9.

Tatto, M.T., and Schwille, J., (2005, October). Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS) Progress Report presented to the IEA General Assembly Helsinki, Finland, 5-13 October 2005.

Tatto, M.T., Paine, L. and Schwille, J. (2005, May). Analyzing the Relation between Theory and Practice in Three Country Case Studies. Proposal for an Interactive Work Session accepted for presentation at the conference of the International Commission of Mathematical Instruction (ICMI)-The 15th Study: The Professional Education and Development of Teacher of Mathematics (on behalf of P-TEDS collaborators in eight countries). Brazil 15-21 May, 2005.

Tatto, M.T., Schwille, J., and Rodriguez, E. (2005, May). Theoretical Perspectives on Teacher Knowledge and their Implications for Cross-National Research on Mathematics Teacher Education Impact. Proposal for a paper accepted for presentation at the conference of the International Commission of Mathematical Instruction (ICMI)-The 15th Study: The Professional Education and Development of Teacher of Mathematics. Brazil 15-21 May, 2005.

Tatto, M.T. (2005, April). The Impact of Teacher Education on Learning to Teach Mathematics: An IEA Multi-Country Comparative Study, Interactive Symposium accepted by Division K: Section 9: Policy in Teaching and Teacher Education (Empirical Work) for presentation at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Montreal Canada (Presenters: Teresa Tatto (symposium chair and presenter), Hans Wagemaker, IEA Executive Director, Lawrence Ingvarson, Australian Council for Educational Research, John Schwille, William Schmidt, David Plank, Lynn Paine, Joan Ferrini-Mundy and Robert Floden, Michigan State University). (April 21-25).

Tatto, M.T. (2005, March). The First IEA Study on the Impact of Teacher Education on Learning to Teach Mathematics: Interactive Symposium accepted for presentation at the Comparative International Education Society, San Francisco, California (Presenters: Maria Teresa Tatto (symposium chair and presenter), John Schwille, and Lynn Paine from Michigan State University, and Martin Carnoy from Stanford University. Discussant: William Cummings from George Washington University). March, 9-12.

Tatto, M.T., and Schwille, J., (2004, October). Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS) Progress Report presented to the IEA General Assembly Taipei, Chinese Taipei, 8-14 October 2004.

Tatto, M.T. and Schwille, J. (2004, March). An IEA Cross-National Study of Elementary and Secondary Mathematics School Teachers. Interactive Symposium organized and presented at the 48th Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Annual Conference, Salt Lake City, 9-12 March.

Tatto, M.T. (2003, September). Researching teacher preparation effects on teaching practice and pupil learning: Lessons from the international literature. Paper prepared for the Oxford International Conference: The state of education: Quantity, Quality and Outcomes, Session on “Culture, context and the quality of education” convened by Michael Crossley and Keith Holmes, 9-11th September 2003, Oxford, England.

Tatto, M.T., and Schwille, J., (2003, October). Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS) Progress Report presented to the IEA General Assembly Lemesos, Cyprus, 6-9 October 2003.

Other Products: 

At the conclusion of this study, the researchers expect to generate a database that will be made available to researchers and scholars for further data analysis and publications. The MSU International Study Center will hold data analysis/writing workshops to facilitate this process.