The project uses a cross-sectional and comparative research design and will generate evidence that is descriptive [case study, design research, observational] and causal [quasi-experimental]. Original data are being collected on low income and minority English language learners in K-2 using diaries, assessments of learning, observation [videography], and survey research [self-completion questionnaires, structured interviewer-administered questionnaires]. Instruments or measures being used include ICER-R (Kishida, et al., 2008), Engineering Learning Assessment, and ITBS (Hieronymus, Hoover, Cantor, Frisbie, Dunbar, Lewis, & Lindquist, 1990). In Year 1, a single case study will involve comprehensive analysis of trend lines for individual students. In Year 2, analyses will be conducted using ANCOVA (covariates will be used if initial differences are found among treatment groups).