Effects of an all-girls charter school: Estimates from multilevel models of change (Singer & Willett, 2003) support our prediction that enrollment in YWLCS reduces implicit stereotyping. The estimated effect of YWLCS enrollment on initial IAT D score was -.12 points (t = -2.62, p = .0095), yielding initial estimated D score means of .18 and .06, respectively, for YWLCS-out and YWLCS-in participants. After initial measurement, implicit stereotypes of both groups gradually decreased at the same rate. That is, the estimated effect of time did not vary for the two groups, and the overall estimated effect was a -.006 change in IAT D score, i.e., weaker stereotyping, per month (p = .06). This finding is contrary to cross-sectional evidence of increasing STEM=male bias with age (Nosek et al. 2007), as both groups of girls are evidencing gradual stereotype reduction. Model estimates reveal significant residual variation in individual trajectories for implicit stereotyping and future analyses will investigate effects of age and other covariates that are not yet available.
Endorsement of “natural” explanations for STEM gender gaps is associated with greater implicit STEM=male bias: For N > 20,000 Internet volunteers, regardless of sex or whether they had pursued STEM at the college level or not, implicit science=male stereotyping was positively related to endorsement of a “nature” hypothesis for STEM gender gaps.
The largest gender gaps in implicit gender-science stereotyping occur among scientists: Male science practitioners evidence the strongest stereotypes of any male groups, while women in science evidence the weakest of any female groups. Practitioners in humanities evidence precisely the opposite pattern, women stereotyping STEM most strongly and men the least.
Jost, J. T., Nosek, B. A., & Gosling, S. D. (2008). Ideology: Its resurgence in social, personality, and political psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 126-136.
Lane, K. A., Banaji, M. R., Nosek, B. A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2007). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: IV: Procedures and validity. In B. Wittenbrink & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Implicit measures of attitudes: Procedures and controversies (pp. 59-102). New York: Guilford Press.
Nosek, B. A. (2007). Implicit-explicit relations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 65-69.
Nosek, B. A. (2007). Understanding the individual implicitly and explicitly. International Journal of Psychology, 42, 184-188.
Nosek, B. A., & Hansen, J. J. (2008). The associations in our heads belong to us: Searching for attitudes and knowledge in implicit evaluation. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 553-594.
Nosek, B. A., & Smyth, F. L. (2007). A multitrait-multimethod validation of the Implicit Association Test: Implicit and explicit attitudes are related but distinct constructs. Experimental Psychology, 54, 14-29.
Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). The Implicit Association Test at age 7: A methodological and conceptual review. In J. A. Bargh (Ed.), Social Psychology and the Unconscious: The Automaticity of Higher Mental Processes (pp. 265-292). New York: Psychology Press.
Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Hansen, J. J., Devos, T., Lindner, N. M., Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., Olson, K. R., Chugh, D., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Pervasiveness and correlates of implicit attitudes and stereotypes. European Review of Social Psychology, 18, 36-88.
Ranganath, K. A., & Nosek, B. A. (2008). Implicit attitude formation occurs immediately, explicit generalization takes time. Psychological Science, 19, 249-254.
Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., & Nosek, B. A. (2008). Distinguishing automatic and controlled components of attitudes from direct and indirect measurement. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 386-396.