This is a longitudinal, cross-sectional, and comparative study designed to generate descriptive and associative/correlational evidence. This project collects original data using assessments of learning, achievement tests, and survey research [questionnaire and online]. This project will create and develop PANAmath, a standardized assessment of an individual’s number-sense precision, to be used across the lifespan. This measure involves a simple discrimination task appropriate for all ages and psychophysical modeling of performance to determine the precision of an individual’s number sense. Correlation analyses of number sense precision (i.e., Weber fraction) and performance in school mathematics (e.g., Math SAT) while controlling for other relevant performance and cognitive variables (e.g., Verbal SAT). These will include measures taken at the same time point (e.g., cross-sectional), measurements taken at two different time points (e.g., Weber fraction at age 45 years correlated with past SAT scores) and longitudinal work (e.g., measurement of Weber fraction at age 3 years correlated with TEMA performance at age 5 years).